When I became a graduate gemologist in 1985, we relied on three things — education, simple tools and intuition — to identify gems, especially dimaonds. The course is difficult in the beginning, with a lot of dry humdrum and specifics. While Jeffrey graduated with a GIA certificate in diamonds, I went all the way — completing my GG and taking other courses like the pearl course.
Our tools were simple: a scope, a loupe, and a refractometer. With these tools, I could be 100 percent sure what a stone was and what it was not.